Archive for January 3rd, 2011

Torque, Horsepower, Bore and Stroke

Torque, Horsepower, Bore and Stroke

While these topics can get very scientific here is a overview that you will find useful to understand the characteristics of a particular engine. This can assist you to make an informed choice based on scientific grounds when comparing two motorcycles.


Torque is the ability of the engine to continue to twist (rotate) the rear wheel with great force. Torque has nothing to do with speed. Maximum torque is not to be found at the highest revs but somewhere below that – perhaps as much as 25%. Because lower revs are involved, the rear wheel is less inclined to spin and loose traction – an important issue when riding your bike up a steep gravel road.


Horsepower is the ability of your engine to move your bike forward at a certain speed – the higher the speed, the shorter the time taken, the greater the horsepower needed.
Every engine has its own characteristics of torque and horsepower – something you as the rider can only learn with experience and hopefully, not too much trial and error! In the example specs given below the engine develops the most torque at 4000 rpm before it starts to drop again. By contrast the horsepower available increases steadily all the way to 5000 rpm.

Practically what does this mean for me the rider? Let us take the BMW F650 as an example. The bike’s manual gives the following technical specs

Maximum permissible rpm 7500
Maximum rated capacity (horsepower) 35 kW at 6500 rpm
Maximum torque 57 N.M. at 5200 rpm
From this we can see that the difference between max torque and max power is 1300rpm – quite a big gap that we must utilise for different conditions.
Consider these two scenarios below based on the specs in the table above. (Your bike will have its own characteristics – consult your manual)

Scenario One

You are traveling along on your motorcycle on a country road behind a long truck doing about 85km. The oncoming traffic is heavy. Things are going to be tight. You will need maximum torque for fast acceleration and maximum horsepower for the necessary speed to take you past and beyond.

The gap you are waiting for arrives! You check your rev counter and it is sitting around 3000rpm. The specs tell us that 5200rpm delivers the maximum torque. The situation demands the maximum. You change down a gear and the revs shoot up drawing on the torque available. You open the throttle up and gun the bike into the gap.

The bikes speed and revs climb quickly. There is not much point taking the revs past 6500 as the horsepower begins to level off after that (the maximum rated capacity). You change to a higher gear and the revs drop back towards the 5200 mark allowing you to again draw on the torque to give added impetus to the bike’s acceleration.

Again the bike’s speed and revs climb quickly. As you do not have another gear to change to you keep the throttle wide open gunning for 7000 rpm. Here the bike is using its horsepower to cover greater and greater distance in a shorter and shorter time period (distance over time i.e. speed)

By now the truck is a speck in your mirror and it’s time to relax and check to see that your passenger was not left somewhere behind on the tarmac!

Scenario Two

You are travelling up a steep gravel-road mountain pass on a 4 x 4 route. You do not want the motorbike to falter and equally you do not want to go too fast. Thus you change to whatever gear that maintains the revs around 4500rpm and maintains the desired speed. This still gives you some extra torque to use if you need it (from 4500 to 5200 rpm)

If both the speed and revs begin to increase you can change to a higher gear and bring them back down. If the speed and revs begin to drop below 4000rpm it is time to change to a lower gear and bring them back up. At all times the idea is to keep the bike in striking distance of the maximum torque level (sometimes called the powerband – yes, confusing as it has nothing to do with horsepower)

The great thing about this topic is that we naturally know all of this just by doing. Listening to the engine and feeling the amount of power still left untapped is the real teacher in this instance.

Bore and Stoke

The combined attributes of bore and stroke makes motorcycle engines very different. Bore is the diameter of the piston (or the diameter of the inside of the cylinder). Stroke is the maximum distance that the piston travels up and down inside the cylinder

Example: The Ducati 999R has a bore of 104mm and a stroke of 58.8mm while a Harley Davidson Road King Classic has a bore of 95.3mm and a stroke of 111.3mm. These big differences in bore and stroke makes the first a superbike with enormous horsepower and the latter a cruiser with a lot of torque.

To make comparisons between bikes we divide the bore by the stroke. If the resultant number is more than 1, then the bike is horsepower orientated and must be operated at high revs. If the number is less than 1 then the bike is torque orientated and is operated at low revs. In the case of the HD Road King above the number is 0.86, therefore a cruiser. The Ducati by comparison yields a number of 1.76, a number comparable to a formula one racing car. The average result for motorcycles is generally around 1.2

NOTE: A motorcycle is not only a product of bore and stroke as many other factors come into play e.g. number of cylinders, gearbox, suspension, rake angle etc. Nevertheless the trend is clearly visible in the table below.

Motorcycle Bore Stroke Result Type of bike
Ducati 999R 104 58.8 1.76 Sportbike
Honda CBR 600 F4 67 42.5 1.57 Sportbike
Kawasaki KX450 96 62 1.54 Motorcross
Honda XL 1000 Varadero 98 66 1.48 Touring
Suzuki DRZ400 90 62 1.45 Enduro offroad
Suzuki GSX 750 70 48.7 1.43 Sport Touring
Kawasaki KX 250 77 53.6 1.43 Motorcross
Yamaha FZ1 Fazer 77 53.6 1.4 Naked sportbike
Harley Davidson VRSCA V-Rod 100 72 1.38 Cruiser
Honda CBR 1100 Super Blackbird 79 58 1.36 Sport Touring
BMW 1200GS 101 73 1.3 Sport Touring*
Yamaha TDM 92 67 1.3 All round
Yamaha XVS 1100 Dragstar 95 75 1.26 Cruiser
Suzuki GSX R1000 73.4 59 1.24 Sportbike
BMW F650GS 100 83 1.2 Dual Sport
Piaggio X9 Evolution 250 72 60 1.2 Commuter
Yamaha XT 660 100 84 1.19 Enduro off road
Yamaha V Max 76 66 1.15 Cruiser
Moto Guzzi California Stone 92 80 1.15 Cruiser
Triumph Speed Triple 79 71.4 1.1 Sportbike
Buell Lightening 88 79.4 1.1 Naked
Honda Goldwing 74 71 1.04 Touring
Honda CB 250 Nighthawk 53 53 1.0 Commuter
Suzuki Intruder M800 83 74.4 1.1 Cruiser
Victory Kingpin 101 102 0.99 Cruiser
Vespa PX 150 Scooter 57 58 0.98 Commuter
Buell Ulysses 88.9 96.8 0.91 Enduro offroad
Harley Davidson Fat Boy 95.3 101.6 0.93 Cruiser
Harley Davidson Road King Classic 95.3 111.3 0.86 Cruiser
* Other factors is design in fact make this BMW motorcycle a capable off road touring bike as well.

NOTE. Older cruiser engine designs have the longest stroke measurement. . Engines with long strokes have a lower compression ratio, poorer fuel economy, poor exhaust emissions, greater friction and have crankshafts that are subject to greater destructive forces. For this reason modern performance cruisers like the HD V-Rod have moved quite far up the table as a result of their shorter strokes.

Wt is payment gateway

A payment gateway is an e-commerce application service provider service that authorizes payments for e-businesses, online retailers, bricks and clicks, or traditional brick and mortar. It is the equivalent of a physical point of sale terminal located in most retail outlets. Payment gateways protect credit card details by encrypting sensitive information, such as credit card numbers, to ensure that information is passed securely between the customer and the merchant and also between merchant and the payment processor.

List of payment gateways

List of Payment Gateways
Here is a list of payment gateways.

· Anacom, Anacom Merchant Services, United States
·,, United States
· Banco Comercial Portugues, Banco Comercial Português, Portugal
· Bank Merchant POS (BMP), Bank of China, China
· Beanstream, Beanstream Internet Commerce, Inc., Canada
· Bibit, Bibit Internet Payments, Netherlands
·, Facilitate I.T. Inc., Canada
· Biz*Star PX, Shanghai Shared Data Network Co. Ltd (SSDN), Singapore
· Business Gateway Service, WorldCom, Japan
· Buy-Line, Bank of New Zealand, New Zealand
· CAFIS, NTT Data Corp., Japan
· Cambist, Cambist Merchant Solutions, United States
· Camtech, Camtech Corp., Australia
· CCNow, CCNow, Inc., United States
· Chinatrust, Chinatrust Commercial Bank (CTCB), Taiwan, Province of China
· CIBC, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, Canada
· CIPAS Indonesia, PT. CIPAS Indonesia, Indonesia
· CitiBank India, CitiBank India, India
· ClearCommerce, ClearCommerce Corp., United States
· ClickBank, Keynetics Inc., United States
· ClickPay, Professo, LLC, United States
· CMB, China Merchants Bank, China
· Comtrust, Comtrust, United Arab Emirates
· CyberCash, VeriSign Payment Services, United States
· CyberMUT, Groupe Crédit Mutuel, France
· CyberSource, CyberSource Corp., United States
· DataCash, DataCash Ltd., United Kingdom
· DirectLink, Plug ‘n Pay Technologies, Inc., United States
· DnB, DnB – Den norske Bank, Norway
· E-Commerce Africa, E-Commerce Africa, Netherlands
· E-Payment, Interactive Worldwide Limited, Australia
· e4Sure, e4asia Inc., Thailand
· EBS, Electronic Billing Systems AG, Germany
· Ecgate, Ecnet, South Africa
· ECHOnline, Electronic Clearing House, Inc.,
· eops, eops AG, Germany
· ePagos, ePagos Merchant Services, United States
· ePDQ, Barclaycard Merchant Services, United Kingdom
· eSec Payment Service, eSec Ltd., Australia
· eStores, Bank of America, United States
· EuroDebit, Moreband Corp. NV, Netherlands Antilles
· FirstEcom, First Ecom, HongKong
· GestPay, Banca Sella S.p.A., Italy
· HDFCBank, HDFC Bank, Ltd., India
· I.N.G, Internet Networking Group, Netherlands
· iBill, Internet Billing Company, Ltd., United States
· IntelliPay, IntelliPay Inc., United States
· IPGS, Visa, United States
· iVeri, eCompany Ltd., South Africa
·, Justgiving, United Kingdom
· Ka-Chingg and TPG, iPayment Technologies, United States
· Kagi, Kagi, United States
· LinkPoint, CardService International, United States
· LiveProcessor, Paymentplus, Inc., United States
·, De Postel BV, Netherlands
· NetBanx, NetBanx Ltd., United Kingdom
· Netbilling, Automated Billing Services, United States
· Online Charge, Innuity, Inc., United States
· OrderButton, OrderButton.Net, Inc., United States
· Pago PAY, Pago eTransaction Services GmbH, Germany
· PAY@db, Deutsche Bank, Germany
·, Alkor Group of Companies, Russian Federation
· PayControl, Netcetera AG, Switzerland
· PayFlow, VeriSign Payment Services, United States
· Paymentservice,, Austria
· Payments Gateway United States
· PayPal, PayPal, United States
· PaySeal, ICICI ePayments Ltd., India
· PayWare, Trintech Group plc, Ireland
· PayWay, Nobil IT Corporation, Canada
· PlanetPayment, Planet Group Inc., United States
· QPAY and QTILL, QENTA paymentsolutions GmbH, Austria
· QSI Client Class, QSI Payments, Australia
· Secure-e-pay, Global Tele-Systems Ltd., India
· SecurePay, SecurePay Pty Ltd., Australia
· SecureTrading, SecureTrading, United Kingdom
· Setcom, Setcom (Pty) Ltd., South Africa
· SIPS, Siam Commercial Bank PCL., Thailand
· Solo e-payment, Solo Market/Merita Bank Plc, Finland
· Speedpay, E Commerce Group, United States
· SurePay, SurePay LP, United States
· Telecharge Canada, TeleCharge Canada, Canada
· Telecommerce, France Telecom, France
· Thirt,, South Africa
· TOPGate, Shanghai Bankcard Network Services Corp., China
· USA ePay, GorCorp Inc., United States
· VIP, Virbus AG, Germany
· WebCollect, GlobalCollect, Netherlands
·, WebMoney Transfer, Russian Federation
· Webpay, Transbank, Chile
· WorldPay, WorldPay plc, United Kingdom

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